For more images from Beach Chair Scientist, please visit Flickr.
For more images from Beach Chair Scientist, please visit Flickr.
You may have heard about the phenomena of horseshoe crab spawning … but, do you really know what’s going on? It’s when hundreds of thousands of these ancient arthropods (dating back 400 million years!) make the journey to low-energy sandy beaches along the Atlantic coast, predominately along the Mid-Atlantic region (highest concentration found along the Delaware Bay), around the time of the full and new moons of May and early June to spawn. Here’s the distilled version of the horseshoe crab spawning saga complete with the words you need to know (i.e., “pedipalps” and “satellite” male) if you want to be considered a horseshoe crab expert. Who doesn’t?
Thank you to the Northeast Office of the US Fish and Wildlife Service for posting this graphic on their Twitter feed! With the mention of horseshoe crabs, how could I not repost this!?!
Well, it’s been quite some time since I’ve posted and it’s all due to an adorable little distraction – my son was born in early January. The addition has been wonderful and fairly stress free (keep your fingers crossed!). In fact, I have to say this time around my biggest stress was picking out a name. We had a boy name chosen, but not a girl name, so the decision was easy. However, it got me thinking about what juvenile marine animals are called. Here is a list of ‘baby’ names of over 25 well-known ocean animals. After all, you don’t accidentally want to refer to a juvenile shark as a calf or a juvenile eel as a spet, do you? If you can expand or elaborate on the list feel free to share in the comments box.
Flamingo, gull, heron, penguin: Chick
Crane: Chick or craneling
Cod: Codling, hake, sprag, or sprat
Most fish: Fry or fingerling
Blue crab: Larva
Clam: Larva, chiton, or littleneck
Horseshoe crab: Larva
Sand dollar, sea urchin, sea star: Larva or pluteus (free-swimming stage)
Dolphin, manatee, porpoise, whale: Calf
Otter: Whelp or pup
Shark, seal, sea lion: Pup
Walrus: Cub or pup
What this short video for some cute pictures of featured juvenile coastal and marine animals. Which one is your favorite?
For more information:
And, we’re concluding the first month of the horseshoe crab mating season for 2013. Over the past couple of weeks, many articles have come through the great worldwide web including some new creative introductions on the relationship of Limulus polyphemus and shorebirds, captivating expose on the capture of two horseshoe crab poachers, updates on the plight of the species after Hurricane Sandy, the discovery of a new bait that could reduce the horseshoe crab harvest, and even a information on raising awareness of the role horseshoe crabs since they play a role with QC endotoxin detection tests (but, read more to see that there may be a sustainable alternative). If you have anything other interesting reads for May please post a comment below.
Limulus polyphemus and Shorebirds (including efforts on tagging, etc)
Journey of shorebirds, horseshoe crabs to shore linked through the ages – May 1, 2013
Protecting ancient undersea creatures – May 9, 2013
Being ‘crabby’ might benefit mankind – May 10, 2013
Tagged Horseshoe Crabs at Big Egg Marsh Queens NY… – May 25, 2013
Shorebirds, Horseshoe Crabs and Stewards… – May 26, 2013
Volunteers help tag mating horseshoe crabs on Harbor Island – May 28, 2013
The Poaching Adventure
2 arrested for poaching horseshoe crabs from NY – May 28, 2013
It’s Dark, but We See You: Release the Horseshoe Crabs – May 28, 2013
NYPD Busts Horseshoe Crabs Poachers After Chopper Chase – May 29, 2013
After Hurricane Sandy Habitat Restoration
Restoring hurricane-damaged horseshoe crab spawning beaches on Delaware Bay – May 11, 2013
Workers race nature to rebuild Shore habitats before mating, migration season – May 20, 2013
After Sandy, a race against time to save an endangered shorebird – May 25, 2013
New Bait Alternative for Eel and Whelk
New bait may cut horseshoe crab bait use – May 30, 2013
New artificial bait could reduce number of horseshoe crabs used to catch eel, whelk – May 30, 2013
QC Endotoxin Detection Tests
Lonza Not ‘Shellfish’ When it Comes to Endotoxin QC Testing – May 21, 2013
It’s no secret that I love those horseshoe crabs. Well someone on Twitter this week asked me why I am so crazy over them so I thought I’d take the time to outline 99 reasons I think Limulus polyphemus are a fascinating species.
This month the Ecological Research & Development Group (ERDG) released a one-stop-shop for research, conservation, and education initiatives on the world’s four species of horseshoe crabs. This was a result of the discussions from the 2011 International Workshop of the Science and Conservation of the Asian Horseshoe Crabs held in Hong Kong.
Be sure to check it out today. There’s lesson plans, peer-reviewed articles, posters, PowerPoint presentations, and more. It’s the intention of the database to serve as a tool to benefit everyone who is in Limulus Love!
I was surprised to learn that the new database includes over 2,000 citations and ERDG is still looking for more materials from people like you and me (Maybe, I’ll submit my cheesy infographic).
All horseshoe crabs molt – until they reach adulthood. They grow on average a quarter of their size each time they shed. Females grow to be about two feet across and males a bit smaller. Molting occurs several times during the first few years and slows as they age. It usually takes 17 molts to reach sexual maturity at age 9-11.
Studies have proven that adults do not molt because the age of organisms living of the crab’s shell. For instance, scientists Bottom and Ropes (1988) completed a study to determine that large slipper snails (Crepidula fornicata) were at least 8 years old on a sample of specimens. This would then make the average age of horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay to be 17 years old.
Also, the deteriorated carapace of some horseshoe crabs, as well as the presence of internal chitinous rods that hold the carapace in place are also evidence that older horseshoe crabs do not molt.
It’s not often you stumble across this on the beach. I asked horseshoe crab expert Danielle Chesky, Fishery Management Plan Coordinator with the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, what was happening in this picture and she said that “they’re dug in for the day after spawning until the high tide comes and they can get back out to sea”. For more posts on horseshoe crabs check out the Limulus Love page. Thank you to a colleague’s in-laws for sending along this picture.
It’s my favorite time of year. This is the best time to explore the beach. It’s still sunny and warm, there are frequent storms (you’ll see why that matters later), and there are few people on the beach. For another six weeks along the mid-Atlantic (before it gets too cold), I encourage you to spend some time getting to know your local shoreline. Here are 10 tips for a successful beachcombing trip.
10. What to bring. Here is a list of some items you may want to remember so you’re prepared for any situation.
9. Be hands free. One more item that you’re going to love me for suggesting is a backpack. This way you can investigate a little bit further from your base and your items are quickly at your disposal.
8. Leave important items behind. Don’t ruin the day by losing a credit card or your phone. If you’re active and in the moment you might lose something and it’s going to be difficult to retrace your steps. I won’t say “I told you so”. On the same note it’s important to leave animals, plants, rocks, and seashells where you find them. If you want to have a little bit of the beach in your home check out these great books by Josie Iselin.
7. When to go. To get the optimum experience for beachcombing you’ll want to check on when low tide is at your beach spot. The best time to go beachcombing is 2-3 hours prior to low tide or an hour or so after (This is why a watch is important, you don’t want to get stuck on shoal during high tide). Many intertidal animals live under the water in the sand during high tide, but come out to play (and seek out food) during low tide. If you can time it so you get to check out the beach after a big storm you’ll be in for a real treat. The strong wind and wave action of storms will wash up a fossils, bones, seaweed, and lot of other interesting treasures from the ocean floor. Also, keep in mind that dawn and dusk are difficult times to identify beach treasures. Although this is a great time to spot birds as many fish tend to come up to the surface at these times.
6. Where to go. My favorite spot to beachcomb is the Stone Harbor Point in NJ, but it’s not always easy for me to get there these days. I like to remind myself from time to time that I don’t need an ocean to beachcomb. There is a lake and creek in my neighborhood and these spots are a great place to spend the afternoon. After all, these waterways eventually lead to the ocean. No matter where I decide to spend some time beachcombing I always make sure to note the general water quality.
5. Be careful. This is just a reminder to not tamper with obviously dangerous items. Fish hooks, metal canisters, and needles often wash up on the beach. While I am going to also suggest doing your part and picking up marine debris it’s also a good idea to err on the side of caution and when poking around. Also, some rocks look very steady but it’s important to be aware of your surroundings. If you are feeling like having an adventurous day it’s might be a good idea to make sure you have someone else with you. One last thing about being careful,even though the dunes might look like an interesting place to check out – it’s important to know that those grasses are incredibly brittle and can crack easily. It’s also against the law to walk on the dunes. The dunes are an important part of the beach ecosystem as they protect our homes from storm surge.
4. Leave it be. Each rock that you turn over is part of an ecosystem. A rock might be an essential part of an animal’s home as it helps pool water during high tide. Rocks also protect them from predator as well as the sun. It’s important to always remember to not take animals out of their natural setting – especially if you see them in a tide pool. Many animals are naturally attached to rocks for survival and you could be risking their survival.
3. Play. You might not want to go home, but you also might be in the company of some people that just don’t have a very long attention span. Even more frustrating is repeating the phrase, “No, you cannot go in the water today” over and over again. Build a sandcastle. Look to the horizon for dolphins or porpoises. Make a sand angel. Look up to the sky for cloud animals. Check out my ebook for other beachcombing adventures.
2. Bag it and track it. It’s always nice to be prepared to be able to do your part. I prefer to take along a hefty canvas bag that can fit in a backpack so I can tote marine debris back to a garbage can. You might even try to acquire one of these nifty bags with holes for sand to percolate through from the Green Bag Lady. When you head back to the car you can even do some citizen science and log your marine debris on the Marine Debris Tracker.
1. Don’t expect too much. It’s important to remember to relax and respect the area you are exploring. All of the ideas above are simply suggestions and ideas to ensure you get the most out of a beachcombing adventure. Please don’t hesitate to share your favorite stories, spots, and other ideas for a great day. You can comment below of email me at email@example.com.
Seahorses are a fascinating species to observe. I took my nephew to the National Aquarium in DC this past weekend and we were memorized by the aquatic centaurian-like bony fish (pictured right). I’ve written about seahorses in the past, and from the traffic of that post I can tell that a seahorse post is much […]
An arenophile is someone that collects sand specimens from different beaches. Not to be confused with a person that loves aviation – an areophile. But we’ve only scratched the surface here. Check back often at http://www.beachchairscientist.com for more insight about your favorite beach discoveries.
The Beneath the Waves Film Festival is back for its third year and is currently accepting submissions! This festival is entirely student-run and is held in conjunction with the Benthic Ecology Meeting, a scientific conference. Alexandra Warneke, a student committee member for the festival, states, “the goal is to encourage widespread science communication by inspiring […]
And, for some more Earth Day cartoons please visit The Daily Green.
Stingrays and sharks are very closely related. They belong to a group of fishes called the elasmobranchs. All elasmobranchs have 1) skeletons made of cartilage (the flexible material that makes up the tip of our nose and ears) and 2) 5-7 gill slits. Elasmobrachs includes sharks, rays, and skates. It’s not entirely incorrect to think […]